Captive finance houses saw a fall in upheld complaints to the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) during the second half of 2017, according to figures released by the regulator.

Among the companies with the most improved rates were BMW Financial Services, with 59.6% of 2,103 closed complaints upheld, down from 76.9% in the first half, and Toyota Financial Services, with 21.6% of 148 complaints upheld, down from 39.5%.

Rates for other captives were stable between the two periods, around 33% for RCI Banque, 43% for Fiat’s FCE Bank, and 50% for both Mercedes-Benz FS and Volkswagen FS.

Volkswagen had the most new complaints – 8,402, in line with the previous half-year – closely followed by Mercedes-Benz at 3,505, down by around 2,000 from the first half.

Among independent and bank-owned lenders, Arval reported a substantial increase in both new complaints and uphold rate, which went from 57% to 63.5%. Leaseplan also saw upheld complaints rise to 57.1%, from 43.8%.

Subprime lender Moneybarn saw rates rise from 29.4% to 38.6%, and for Paragon, the percentage rose from 26.2% to 38.3%.

Lex Autolease and Black Horse were down in terms of upholding rates, going from 69.2% to 58.9% and 52% to 36.7% respectively.

Other lenders like Startline, Moneyway parent Secure Trust Bank and Motonovo parent FirstRand recorded stable rates, ranging between 30 and 55%.

The FCA received some 3.7m complaints in H2 2017, up 13% from H1. Excluding complaints over Payment Protection Insurance, the number was broadly unchanged from the previous six months.